The 4C's
The 4 C’s are the characteristics of the diamond that will determine the grade, quality and price. The 4 C’s consists of Clarity, Color, Carat and Cut


Clarity relates to what is inside the diamond also known as inclusion or clarity characteristics. It describes the clearness or purity of a diamond. This is determined by the number, size, type, and location of the internal (inclusions) and external (blemishes).
Diamonds are born in nature and nothing in nature is perfect. Everything in nature has it won natural grain. We view diamonds with 10x magnification and grade them.

(FL & IF) Flawless, Internally Flawless
Flawless diamonds does not contain any internal or external inclusions when viewed with 10x magnification. Internally Flawless diamonds may contain minute external characteristics such as blemishes on the surface. Flawless diamonds are rare as most of the diamonds in the market contains internal and external inclusions

(VVS1 & VVS2) Very, Very Slightly Included
VVS included diamonds Contains tiny and very difficult to see inclusions under 10x magnification. These diamonds are highly regarded as excellent quality grade. The inclusions are invisible to the naked eye.

(VS1 & VS2) Very Slightly Included
VS included diamonds Contains inclusions that can be seen under 10x magnification but can be characterized as minor such as crystals and clouds. The inclusions are invisible to the naked eye.

(SI1& SI2) Slightly Included
SI included diamonds Contains inclusions that are noticeable under 10x magnification to a skilled grader. SI1 Inclusions are often invisible to the naked eye. SI2 inclusions are usually visible to the naked eye at very close range.

(I1, I2, I3) Included
Included diamonds Contains inclusions that are obvious and can usually be clearly seen under 10x magnification as well as with the naked eye.

IF – SI1 inclusions cannot be seen by the unaided eye. When you get to SI2 you can faintly see some inclusions with the naked eye. But with the I1-I3 diamonds, a good eye will be able to see it. The main reason the high clarity grading cost more is because of the rarity factor. Most diamonds have minor impurities
In picking a clarity, take note that you cannot see them anyhow. Note that it is only visible with 10x magnification.


Color describes the amount of color the diamond contains.

There are 2 categories of diamonds in respect to color :
White Diamonds - These are diamonds that falls within D (Highest) to Z (Lowest) color grading scale
Fancy Natural Colored Diamonds - faint to vivid saturations such as blue, yellow, or pink. These fancy colors are rare and therefore more valuable.

The white diamond color scale starts with D which represents colorless and continues, with increasing presence of color, to the letter Z.
Many of these color distinctions are so subtle that they are invisible to the untrained eye; however, these distinctions make a very big difference in diamond quality and price.

Colorless (White)
View from table crown is “Colorless”
View from Pavilion is also “Colorless”
Near Colorless (White)
View from Table crown is “Colorless”
View From Pavilion is “Slight tint of Yellow”
Slightly tinted / Faint
View from table crown is “Very Light Yellowish”
View from Pavilion is “Yellowish” (obvious)
N, O, P, Q, R Very Light Yellow
View from table Crown is “Yellowish” (obvious)
View from Pavilion “Yellowish” (obvious)
S, T, U, V
W, X, Y, Z
Light Yellow


Carat is the term that is use to describe the unit of weight of a diamond. The international standard weight of 1 carat is 0.20 grams, 200 milligrams or 1/5 of a gram. 1 carat is also commonly referred to as 100 points, therefore a 0.50ct is 50 points.

1 Carat = 100 points = 0.2 Gram


Among the 4C’s, a diamond's cut is the most essential grade to determine the diamond’s beauty and value. To determine a diamond’s cut grade, complicated and technically laborious process are undertaken to measure the angles, proportion.
A diamond that is cut well will reflect light from one facet to another and then back out through the top of the diamond. The cutting quality of a diamond determines its brilliance and dispersion.

Deep cut: When the cut of a diamond is too deep, some light escapes through the opposite side of the pavilion.
Shallow cut: When the cut of a diamond is too shallow, light escapes through the pavilion before it can be reflected

Cut grading terminology as seen on grading reports:
P = Poor
F = Fair
G = Good
VG = Very Good
EX = Excellent


The polish of a diamond shows how well the diamond was finished, how clean, shiny and straight edged the cuts of the facets. Polish is the overall condition of the diamonds’ facet surface

Polish grading terminology as seen on grading reports:
P = Poor
F = Fair
G = Good
VG = Very Good
EX = Excellent

A well polished diamond is more brilliant than a poorly polished diamond.


Symmetry relates to the symmetrical placement, position and arrangement of the facets and the exactness of the shape of a diamond. There are certain factors that have to be checked for the perfect cut grade and these are:

Symmetry of the sides of the table edges
Centricity and parallelism of table
Centricity of the culet
Sharpness in the intersection of the facet edges
Alignment of the crown and the pavilion facets

Symmetry grading terminology as seen on grading reports:
P = Poor
F = Fair
G = Good
VG = Very Good
EX = Excellent


Fluorescence is a form of illumination that becomes evident when a diamond is exposed exposed to ultra violet light. Fluorescence causes some diamonds to glow under ultra violet light. It can occur in different colors and intensities. The most common fluorescent color is blue.

About 20% of diamonds exhibit fluorescence. Medium make color lighter.

The following are the possible grades given to fluorescence:
- None
- Faint
- Medium
- Strong
- Very Strong

Medium fluorescence can sometimes make color appear lighter. Under normal conditions it is not visible with the naked eye. Diamonds with strong or very strong fluorescence are relatively cheaper for the consumer than diamonds with none or faint fluorescence.


The most reputable independent laboratories worldwide :
G.I.A. (Gemological Institute of America)
I.G.I. (International Gemological Institute)
H.R.D. (Hoge Raad voor Diamant)
A.G.S. (American Gem Society laboratories)
E.G.L. (European Gemological Laboratories)